|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2018
|Disclosure of Compensation Related Costs, Share-based Payments [Abstract]|
|Disclosure of Compensation Related Costs, Share-based Payments [Text Block]||
9. STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION
Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation
Increase in 2015 Stock Incentive Plan
. At the 2018 annual meeting of stockholders held on May 31, 2018, the Company’s stockholders approved an increase in the number of shares of common stock available for issuance under our 2015 Stock Incentive Plan by 120,000 shares.
2015 Stock Incentive Plan.
The 2015 Stock Incentive Plan was adopted on June 9, 2015 authorizing an aggregate of 42,000 shares for issuance (after taking into account the 2018 and 2016 10:1 reverse stock splits). On May 31, 2017, our stockholders approved the Amended and Restated 2015 Stock Incentive Plan (the “2015 Plan”) to increase the authorized shares by 120,000 shares. On May 31, 2018, our stockholders approved the Amended and Restated 2015 Stock Incentive Plan to increase the authorized shares by 120,000. A total of 282,000 shares of common stock are authorized for issuance under the 2015 Plan for grants of incentive or nonqualified stock options, rights to purchase restricted and unrestricted shares of common stock, stock appreciation rights and performance share grants. A committee of the board of directors determines exercise prices, vesting periods and any performance requirements on the date of grant, subject to the provisions of the Plan. Options are granted at or above the fair market value of the common stock at the grant date and expire on the tenth anniversary of the grant date. Vesting periods are generally between one and four years. Options granted pursuant to the Plan generally will become fully vested upon a termination event occurring within one year following a change in control, as defined. A termination event is defined as either termination of employment or services other than for cause or constructive termination of employees or consultants resulting from a significant reduction in either the nature or scope of duties and responsibilities, a reduction in compensation or a required relocation. Upon adoption of the 2015 Plan, shares were no longer available for grant under our 2006 Stock Incentive Plan (the “2006 Plan”). All outstanding awards under the 2006 Plan remained in effect according to the terms of the 2006 Plan and the respective agreements relating to such awards. In addition, any shares that are currently available under the 2006 Plan and any shares underlying awards under the 2006 Plan which are forfeited, cancelled, reacquired by the Company or otherwise terminated will be added to the number of shares available for grant under the 2015 Plan. As of December 31, 2018, there are an aggregate of 44,473 shares available for future grants under the 2015 Plan.
2006 Stock Option Plan.
Prior to the approval of the 2015 Stock Incentive Plan, option grants to directors and employees were made under the 2006 Plan. A total of 7,000 shares of common stock were authorized for issuance under the 2006 Plan for grants of incentive or nonqualified stock options, rights to purchase restricted and unrestricted shares of common stock, stock appreciation rights and performance share grants. A committee of the board of directors determined exercise prices, vesting periods and any performance requirements on the date of grant, subject to the provisions of the 2006 Plan. Options were granted at or above the fair market value of the common stock at the grant date and expire on the tenth anniversary of the grant date. Vesting periods were generally between one and four years.
Restricted Stock Grant
s. During 2017, the Company issued 46,000 shares under the 2015 Plan of restricted common stock with a weighted average grant date fair value of $20.96. The shares vest annually over a three year period. The following table summarizes the restricted stock grants:
The following table summarizes amounts charged to expense for stock-based compensation related to employee and director stock option grants:
Assumptions Used In Determining Fair Value
Valuation and amortization method
. The fair value of each stock award is estimated on the grant date using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The estimated fair value of employee stock options is amortized to expense using the straight-line method over the required service period which is generally the vesting period. The estimated fair value of the non-employee options is amortized to expense over the period during which a non-employee is required to provide services for the award (usually the vesting period).
The Company estimates volatility based on an average of (1) the Company’s historical volatility since its common stock has been publicly traded and (2) review of volatility estimates of publicly held drug development companies with similar market capitalizations.
Risk-free interest rate
. The risk-free interest rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of grant commensurate with the expected term assumption.
. The expected term of stock options granted is based on an estimate of when options will be exercised in the future. The Company applied the simplified method of estimating the expected term of the options, as described in the SEC’s Staff Accounting Bulletins 107 and 110, as the historical experience is not indicative of the expected behavior in the future. The expected term, calculated under the simplified method, is applied to groups of stock options that have similar contractual terms. Using this method, the expected term is determined using the average of the vesting period and the contractual life of the stock options granted. The Company applied the simplified method to non-employees who have a truncation of term based on termination of service and utilizes the contractual life of the stock options granted for those non-employee grants which do not have a truncation of service.
The Company records stock-based compensation expense only for those awards that are expected to vest. A forfeiture rate is estimated at the time of grant and revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from initial estimates. An annual forfeiture rate of 2% was applied to all unvested options for employees and directors, respectively, during the periods ended December 31, 2018 and 2017. Ultimately, the actual expense recognized over the vesting period will be for only those shares that vest.
The following table summarizes weighted-average values and assumptions used for options granted to employees, directors and consultants in the periods indicated:
Stock Option Activity
A summary of stock option activity is as follows:
Exercise prices for all grants made during the twelve months ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 were equal to or greater than the market value of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant. The aggregate intrinsic value of options outstanding is calculated based on the positive difference between the estimated per-share fair value of common stock at the end of the respective period and the exercise price of the underlying options. Shares of common stock issued upon the exercise of options are from authorized but unissued shares.
The weighted-average grant-date fair value of options granted during the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 was $2.30 and $15.80, respectively. The total fair value of shares vested during the years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 was $416,734 and $636,071, respectively. The weighted-average grant-date fair value of vested and unvested options outstanding at December 31, 2018 was $42.42 and $4.10, respectively. The weighted-average grant-date fair value of vested and unvested options outstanding at December 31, 2017 was $77.40 and $29.10, respectively.
The weighted average grant date fair value of options expired during the years ended December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 was $191.38 and $611.20, respectively. The weighted average grant date fair value of options forfeited during the years ended December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 was $15.91 and $11.90, respectively. The number of options vested during the years ended December 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017 was 22,345 and 20,360, respectively. The number of options unvested at January 1, 2018 and January 1, 2017 was 27,718 and 39,742, respectively. The weighted average grant date fair value of options unvested at January 1, 2018 and January 1, 2017 was $29.13 and $32.70, respectively.
As of December 31, 2018, there was $1,111,887 of total unrecognized compensation cost related to unvested stock-based compensation arrangements. Of this total amount, the Company expects to recognize $761,369, $233,413, and $117,105 during 2019, 2020, and 2021 respectively. The Company expects options to purchase 186,505 shares to vest in the future.
The entire disclosure for compensation-related costs for equity-based compensation, which may include disclosure of policies, compensation plan details, allocation of equity compensation, incentive distributions, equity-based arrangements to obtain goods and services, deferred compensation arrangements, employee stock ownership plan details and employee stock purchase plan details.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef