|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2021
4. STOCK-BASED COMPENSATION
Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation
2021 Stock Incentive Plan The 2021 Stock Incentive Plan (the “2021 Plan”) was adopted on June 23, 2021 authorizing an aggregate of 6,000,000 shares of common stock for grants of incentive or nonqualified stock options, rights to purchase restricted and unrestricted shares of common stock, stock appreciation rights and performance share grants. The Compensation Committee determines exercise prices, vesting periods and any performance requirements on the date of grant, subject to the provisions of the 2021 Plan. Options are granted at or above the fair market value of the common stock at the grant date and expire on the tenth anniversary of the grant date. Vesting periods are generally between and four years. Options granted pursuant to the 2021 Plan generally will become fully vested upon a termination event occurring within one year following a change in control, as defined. A termination event is defined as either termination of employment or services other than for cause or constructive termination of employees or consultants resulting from a significant reduction in either the nature or scope of duties and responsibilities, a reduction in compensation or a required relocation. All outstanding awards under the 2015 Stock Incentive Plan (the “2015 Plan”) remained in effect according to the terms of the 2015 Plan and the respective agreements relating to such awards. In addition, any shares that are currently available under the 2015 Plan and any shares underlying awards under the 2015 Plan which are forfeited, cancelled, reacquired by the Company or otherwise terminated will be added to the number of shares available for grant under the 2021 Plan. As of September 30, 2021, there are an aggregate of 3,184,363 shares available for future grants under the 2021 Plan.
During the nine-month periods ended September 30, 2021 and 2020, options granted were 3,537,500 and 653,750, respectively. The following table summarizes amounts charged to expense for stock-based compensation related to employee and director stock option grants:
On March 4, 2021, we granted 2,810,000 contingent non-statutory stock option awards at an exercise price of $1.74 per share to our employees. Each of these grants was contingent on approval of the 2021 Plan that was voted on and approved by the stockholders at the Annual Meeting of Stockholders held on June 23, 2021. In accordance with the timing of the stockholder approval, the Company recognized the compensation expense of the contingent non-statutory stock option awards issued in March 2021 beginning in June 2021 and continuing through vesting period.
Assumptions Used in Determining Fair Value
Valuation and amortization method. The fair value of each stock award is estimated on the grant date using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The estimated fair value of employee stock options is amortized to expense using the straight-line method over the required service period which is generally the vesting period. The estimated fair value of the non-employee options is amortized to expense over the period during which a non-employee is required to provide services for the award (usually the vesting period).
Volatility. The Company estimates volatility based on the Company’s historical volatility since its common stock is publicly traded.
Risk-free interest rate. The risk-free interest rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of grant commensurate with the expected term assumption.
Expected term. The expected term of stock options granted is based on an estimate of when options will be exercised in the future. The Company applies the simplified method of estimating the expected term of the options, as described in the SEC’s Staff Accounting Bulletins 107 and 110, as the historical experience is not indicative of the expected behavior in the future. The expected term, calculated under the simplified method, is applied to groups of stock options that have similar contractual terms. Using this method, the expected term is determined using the average of the vesting period and the contractual life of the stock options granted. The Company applied the simplified method to non-employees who have a truncation of term based on termination of service and utilizes the contractual life of the stock options granted for those non-employee grants which do not have a truncation of service.
Forfeitures. The Company records stock-based compensation expense only for those awards that are expected to vest. The Company accounts for forfeitures as they occur.
Dividends. The Company has not historically recorded dividends related to stock options.
Exercise prices for all grants made during the nine months ended September 30, 2021 were equal to the market value of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant.
Stock Option Activity
A summary of stock option activity is as follows:
The aggregate intrinsic value of options outstanding is calculated based on the positive difference between the estimated per-share fair value of common stock at the end of the respective period and the exercise price of the underlying options. There have been no option exercises to date. Shares of common stock issued upon the exercise of options are from authorized but unissued shares.
As of September 30, 2021, there was approximately $3,005,000 of total unrecognized compensation cost related to unvested stock-based compensation arrangements. Of this total amount, the Company expects to recognize approximately $413,000, $1,396,000, $1,020,000, and $176,000 during 2021, 2022, 2023, and 2024 respectively. The Company’s expense estimates are based upon the expectation that all unvested options will vest in the future. The weighted-average grant-date fair value of vested and unvested options outstanding at September 30, 2021 was $3.86 and $0.90, respectively.
Restricted Stock Grants. During 2017, the Company issued 46,000 shares under the 2015 Plan of restricted common stock with a weighted average grant date fair value of $20.96. The shares vested annually over a three year period. The following table summarizes the restricted stock grants:
The entire disclosure for share-based payment arrangement.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef