|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2017
|Disclosure of Compensation Related Costs, Share-based Payments [Abstract]|
|Disclosure of Compensation Related Costs, Share-based Payments [Text Block]||
Accounting for Stock-Based Compensation
The following table summarizes amounts charged to expense for stock-based compensation related to employee and director stock grants and stock option grants and recorded in connection with stock options granted to non-employee consultants:
Assumptions Used In Determining Fair Value for Stock Options
Valuation and amortization method. The fair value of each stock option award is estimated on the grant date using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The estimated fair value of employee stock options is amortized to expense using the straight-line method over the vesting period. The estimated fair value of the non-employee options is amortized to expense over the period during which a non-employee is required to provide services for the award (usually the vesting period).
Volatility. The Company estimates volatility based on an average of (1) the Company’s historical volatility since its common stock has been publicly traded and (2) review of volatility estimates of publicly held drug development companies with similar market capitalizations.
Risk-free interest rate. The risk-free interest rate is based on the U.S. Treasury yield curve in effect at the time of grant commensurate with the expected term assumption.
Expected term. The expected term of stock options granted is based on an estimate of when options will be exercised in the future. The Company applied the simplified method of estimating the expected term of the options, as described in the SEC’s Staff Accounting Bulletins 107 and 110, as the historical experience is not indicative of the expected behavior in the future. The expected term, calculated under the simplified method, is applied to groups of stock options that have similar contractual terms. Using this method, the expected term is determined using the average of the vesting period and the contractual life of the stock options granted. The Company applied the simplified method to non-employees who have a truncation of term based on termination of service and utilizes the contractual life of the stock options granted for those non-employee grants which do not have a truncation of service.
Forfeitures. The Company records stock-based compensation expense only for those awards that are expected to vest. A forfeiture rate is estimated at the time of grant and revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from initial estimates. An annual forfeiture rate of 2% was applied to all unvested options for the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and for the year ended December 31, 2016. Ultimately, the actual expense recognized over the vesting period will be for only those shares that vest.
Exercise prices for all grants made during the nine months ended September 30, 2017 and 2016 were equal to the market value of the Company’s common stock on the date of grant.
Stock Option Activity
A summary of stock option activity is as follows:
The aggregate intrinsic value of options outstanding is calculated based on the positive difference between the estimated per-share fair value of common stock at the end of the respective period and the exercise price of the underlying options. There have been no options exercised during the nine months ended September 30, 2017. Shares of common stock issued upon the exercise of options are from authorized but unissued shares.
During the three months ended June 30, 2017, the Company issued 460,000 shares of restricted stock to members of the executive team. The restricted stock was granted at a price of either $2.08 or $2.10, which was the closing price of the stock on the date of issuance, and vests in equal annual amounts over three years. The related expense will be amortized ratably over the vesting period. During the three months ended September 30, 2017, 80,000 shares of restricted stock were forfeited.
The unvested portion of the restricted stock grants is not considered outstanding for accounting purposes; therefore, the related shares are not included in the earnings per share calculation or included in the shares reported as outstanding on the balance sheet, as of or for the periods ended September 30, 2017. Note that such shares are considered outstanding from a legal perspective as of the date of grant.
Unrecognized Compensation Cost
As of September 30, 2017, there was approximately $1,403,000 of total unrecognized compensation cost related to unvested stock-based compensation arrangements. Of this total amount, the Company expects to recognize approximately $184,000, $673,000, $474,000 and $72,000 during 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020 respectively. The Company’s expense estimates are based upon the expectation that all unvested stock grants and stock options will vest in the future, less the forfeiture rate discussed above. The weighted-average grant-date fair value of vested and unvested stock grants and stock options outstanding at September 30, 2017 was $8.34 and $2.42, respectively.
The entire disclosure for compensation-related costs for equity-based compensation, which may include disclosure of policies, compensation plan details, allocation of equity compensation, incentive distributions, equity-based arrangements to obtain goods and services, deferred compensation arrangements, employee stock ownership plan details and employee stock purchase plan details.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef